Phongsaly is located farthest north of Laos, which shares a border with China and Vietnam. Most of Phongsaly is at high altitudes, and the capital is located 1,400 m above sea level. The forests of Phongsaly are the most remote and well-preserved in northern Laos and the scenery includes spectacular limestone mountains and the Nam Ou river ( the biggest tributary of the Mekong ).

The population is made up of about 34 different ethnicities, which are Phounoi, Taileu, Khmu, Akha, Haw, Yao, Oma, Poulee, Mouchee,  Laoloum,  Pala,  Lolopho,  Hmong,  Cherpia, Laoseng, Laobith, Hayi, Tai Neua, Erpa… The capital of Phongsaly province is Phongsaly town and ( now be moving to Boun Neua town),   which has a complicated history. Having served as a Chinese, French, and Vietnamese outpost. The town is surrounded by rolling hills and is located at the bottom of Phoufa Mount. The buildings in the town have interesting architectural features and Culture Museum is an interesting place to visit.